Tag Archives: bodybuilding steroid

Best Cutting Diet for Ripped Body

129677220401

Cutting diet is crucial for losing the extra body fat and gaining a well defined and ripped body. Bodybuilders use best cutting steroids for rapid and effective results in their cutting cycle. Cutting fat is probably the most difficult phase of bodybuilding but if you are using best cutting diet the surely you will reach the fitness goal comfortably. It’s all about the mindset because most people give away on losing fat due to strict workouts and diet routine. This article is especially for you to lose the excess body fat and enjoy a well shredded body in no time. Here are some useful cutting diet tips for your cutting cycle.

1.    Chicken

Lean chicken is considered as the best protein source for bodybuilders. Skinless chicken may be the nice one to shed extra pounds because it is low in calories and can be prepared according to the taste.

2.    Fish

Fish is another best protein source along with healthy fat. Healthy fat helps to cut the extra body fat. Try Salmon as it is the prime choice of professionals in cutting cycle.

3.    Vegetables

Switch you carbohydrates with green vegetables. Vegetables are perfect for health with uncountable benefits. They are also very low in calories. So you can eat them a lot without worrying about any weight gain and also vegetables keeps your stomach fuller for longtime.

4.    Eggs

Probably the cheapest but rich protein source egg is a high nutritious food for every fitness enthusiast. Eggs contains tons of health fats that are necessary part of our meal and helps to cut the body fat.

5.    Water

Indeed water is the basic necessity of every breathing animal on planet and when it comes to lose or cut weight, this is the best natural remedy. Try to consume large amount of water as it prevents dehydration and provide essential energy. Another benefit of water is that it prevents from excessive eating. An ideal amount of water to shed body fat is 8-12 glass per day.

6.    Nuts and Almonds

Foods like nuts and almonds are very useful in cutting diet. Nuts are full of protein and healthy fats which provide adequate amount of energy to the muscles. But don’t eat too much of them because they are also rich in calories.

Some Useful tips

Cutting diet is one aspect of gaining lean body but you should include exercising such cardio in your plan. It is effective for the inner health and helps to burn maximum calories. The food timing should not be ignored because it is very useful. Try to eat carbohydrates early in the diet and minimize the as you go along. Remember don’t eat carbohydrates before going to bed because human body can hardly process them without any physical activity. It may be tough for you at the beginning but once you see the results, you will surely love it. Fitness is achieved by physical activity but maintained by mental power. So, stay motivated and never give up at any point.

Advertisements

Effectiveness of Growth Hormones in Life

113276435971Fitness plays vital role not only to keep us active but to keep us youthful for longtime. Somatropin HGH is one the widely used and most effective way to improve growth hormone level in the body. Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is produced naturally in the pituitary glands and is responsible for the growth of the body. This hormone also plays significant role to keep us youthful and energetic for longtime. If you want to delay aging and retain your youth then you must keep hormone level at perfect level. Below is a common know how about growth hormones and how to improve the level of hormones in the body?

The basic function of growth hormone is to stimulate cell growth in the body. This hormone is vital aspect of our endocrine system. The rate of natural production is at its peak in growing years. In puberty, it aids to stimulate height and growth. That’s why adult people look more energetic and youthful. The natural production of growth hormones is controlled by hypothalamus of the brain and in pancreas and intestinal tract. Below are some prominent functions performed by HGH in human body.

  • Minimize aging signs
    Improves healing
    Enhance joint support and energy levels
    Helps to regulate body fluids
    Maintains lean body
    Strength joint and bones
    Increases blood circulation
    Stimulate hair and nail growth
    Minimizes fat accumulation
    Helps to maintain sleep quality

The deficiency of growth hormones begins at the age of early 30s which results in

  • Fatigue
    Low stamina
    Low immunity
    Low endurance and energy level
    Depression and Anxiety
    Low sexual desire
    High body fat
    No lean body mass

The deficiency of growth hormones in children affects natural growth. Various HGH supplements are used by health experts to treat such diseases. As we mentioned above that the rate of natural production starts at early thirties and then after 50s the body produces only 40 percent of actual production. The most grisly effect of low hormone level results in rapid aging. Naturally every human wants to stay young and strong forever which is impossible. But you can delay the aging factor by keep Human Growth Hormone level at high level. HGH supplements are available in powders, injections and pills form. Most people like to use pills because they are affordable, widely available and easily useable.

Supplements are also in great demand amongst sports enthusiasts as they provide maximum performance benefits. Bodybuilder also use HGH supplements to raise the level of growth hormones in their body which results in maximum energy level, improved lean muscle mass and strong bones. Somatropin HGH is the most demand growth hormone supplement that aids to delay aging by increasing growth hormone level in the body naturally.

Anadro Reviews For Muscle and Strength Building

2Anadrol pills are the most commonly used to treat weight related ailments. It was first discovered to treat people with anemia, because it is known to increase red blood cells. In this artcile we will share some effective Anadrol Reviews for muscle and strength growth. It is very effective in treating issues related to weight loss and decreased appetite as it increases both weight and appetite and gives strength to the body.

However, according to many Anadrol reviews there are many downfalls related to the steroid. Like many other Anabolic Androgenic ( AAS ) steroid, Anadrol has some severe side effects. Anadrol can inhibit the natural production of your body’s hormones, mostly testosterone. It can very adversely affect your blood and lipid profile. Many Anadrol reviews state that these steroid pills can cause severe water retention and headaches.

Anadrol has the worst name for liver toxicity, which means it is highly toxic to the liver.
Thus it becomes very essential to read all the reviews written by intellectual people and manufacturers across the world and not by some bogus firms. The best ones will provide you with the most genuine and undisputed Anadrol reviews.

Some facts about Anadrol Steroids

(i) Androgenic :  Anabolic ratio: 45:320
(ii) [17 beta-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylene-17 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-androstan-3-one]
(iii) Melting point: 178 – 180˚ C
(iv) Molecular formula: C 21 H 32 O 3
(v) Effective Dosage: 100mgs
(vi) Oxymetholone
(vii) Release date : 1960
(viii) Detection time: up to 8 weeks
(ix) Active Life : <16 hours
(x) Manufacturer: Syntex (originally)
(xi) molecular weight: 332.482

The Anadrol Side Effects:

If you go though the Anadrol reviews you would find some every obvious and lethal side effect. All Drugs have side effects, and let’s not forget, Anadrol is a steroid, the most potent category of drugs. Adverse reactions often take place with this steroid which depends on the sufferance power of the person. This steroid first passes through the liver which makes it very taxing for the liver. The side effects include:

> Terrible cluster head-aches
> Liver toxicity
> Heavy stomach bloating
> Increased Blood pressure
> Water retention
>Suppression of the Testosterone hormone
>General feeling of being ‘unwell’

Decision Time:

If you carefully study the Anadrol reviews provided by regular users, you would come to know about how higher doses of this steroid can actually cause extreme appetite suppression making it rather difficult to eat anything. This steroid is also known to increase glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. It will enable your body to absorb the macronutrients efficiently making your body weak and devoid of the nutrients that are very much needed for a good healthy system. It also hampers with your hormonal production to an extent like any other steroid, however it is not advisable to take it in oral form. The injectable form is better. Anadrol are not as harsh on you lipids as other steroids.

Now that you are thorough with the pros and cons of the steroid, it’s you time to decide whether you wish to go for the steroid or not.Choose wisely. Stay healthy.

Getting a well toned body by cutting steroids

0097

Excess fats can destroy your look

The excess amount of fat apparent on the various areas of your body can have a profound effect on your self-esteem. You might be conscious about your appearance at all times and baring your body might be the hardest thing that you have to do. If that is the case with you, it is time to take matters into your own hands instead of just viewing others with envy. It is in your hands to get a well-toned body that would enable you to look macho and masculine wherein you would be an epitome of strength and power.

The first step that you ought to perform is undertaking some drastic changes in your lifestyle. Accommodate exercise in your daily routine and formulate dietary plans which would ensure that the amount of calories entering your body is restricted while the nutritional requirement of your body is getting fulfilled. Via these measures, it is certainly possible to have the perfect body, though the process would take a long time. If you are not willing to wait for so long or if you feel that the process requires a certain boost, cutting steroids can be used for the purpose.

Various choices available

When we talk about cutting steroids, you would find that the market is flooded with options. However, not every cutting steroid is safe to use, which is why you ought to be cautious while making your selection for the cutting steroid that you would like to use. Take a close look at the biophysical profile of the drug, focus on potential side effects and risk factors, and derive the efficacy rate and the duration that the drug would take for results to become apparent. Once all the factors are taken into account, then you can select the cutting steroid that you find most fit. Let us give you a few examples of some cutting steroids which are found to be effective in action and do not put your health in a great deal of danger.

Winstrol is a cutting steroid that serves to burn fat from your body while at the same time ensuring that no effect occurs on the muscle mass. Metabolism would be enhanced, thereby speeding up the process of fat burning via this cutting steroid. If you are dieting simultaneously, the effect of this drug would increase by many folds.

Trenbolone is another cutting steroid that has garnered quite a bit of appreciation for its prompt and effective results as it increases the process of fat burning in the body by enhancing the secretion of testosterone in the body. It also makes sure that no effect occurs on the mass of the muscles.

Another cutting steroid that spares muscle mass while at the same time burning fat is clenbuterol, which works by stimulating the nervous system and triggering the process of thermogenesis.

There are many other cutting steroids that can be used but caution must be observed when settling for one.

Assistance in the task of body building

0047A boost in the process

Among the various steroids being used by body builders to attain their desired body, dianabol pills are found to be quite popular. When body builders are questioned regarding the usage of steroids in spite of their grave side effects, the response that is mostly given is that the medicine enhances strength and power in their muscles and also enables them to attain a well-toned and masculine body.

There is no denying that most men are willing to go to great lengths to ensure that they have a macho body which they can flaunt. They view it as a sign of masculinity. You can hardly expect to find a man who would say that having muscles is not something he would desire to have, particularly when he is in his twenties. Once a certain age is crossed, most men would let go of this obsession with muscles. However, you are unlikely to come across someone who has not gone through this obsession at some point in his life and for body builders, this craze for having the perfect body never ends, thereby leading them to the use of steroids.

What does dianabol do?

Dianabol is found to be quite effective in its action. This drug is found to cause an increase in the muscle mass as well as strength. It also causes increased protein synthesis in the body coupled with the process of glycogenolysis occurring at a faster rate. All the actions that it performs in the body serve to cause an increase in the mass and strength of the muscle. Fat burning also occurs to a certain extent. Androgenic receptors are responsible for most of its action.

The brunt of side effects

Like all the other drugs of this genre, dianabol is not exempted from the brunt of side effects. When an extensive study regarding the usage of drug is done, it is discovered that while it is true that the drug performs its actions in an effective manner, its side effects cannot be ignored as ignorance can lead to some serious complications.

For one thing, testosterone levels start to decline in the body when this drug is administered. In order to deal with this issue, exogenous administration of the hormone is advised. But there is one problem which would not be solved by this administration. While many of the problems that can incur due to a decline in testosterone will be dealt with, the atrophy of testicles would not be prevented even if testosterone is administered via the exogenous route. However, this process is reversible and once the drug intake is stopped, the testicles would regain their normal size and function.

Other side effects that can be a cause of worry include gynaecomastia which can be a source of embarrassment for the men, hypertension, hypercholesteremia, and increased water retention in the body thereby leading to edema. These grave side effects can be controlled to a certain extent if a close watch is kept on the dosage.

Trenbolone Results- Muscle and Strength with Legal Steroid Alternatives

tumblr_neizeidx8Y1tgi9nho1_1280

Bodybuilding is the key to get rid of excess fat, weight and to build an attractive physique. Most of the peoples think that bodybuilding is a tough and slow process; it might be true to some extent but not totally. Nowadays anabolic steroids are very effective in providing strength and energy t muscles builders. In this article, we will take a view of Trenbolone results that how they are helpful in bodybuilding and other sports. There only few steroids that are full of energy and strength and also have the ability to burn fat effectively.

Trenbolone is a famous steroid in bodybuilders as it helps to boost energy, stamina and strength. It is best known for its anabolic and androgenic effects. Trenbolone results comprise rapid bulking and cutting too. T-Bal 75 is a totally legal steroid that imitates Trenbolone without any negative effects. It is getting fabulous reviews from users and immensely popular amongst bodybuilders for its results. T-Bal 75 is a potent legal steroid that is five times more powerful than testosterone. It helps to increase the lean muscle by 10-15 pounds in just one month. It has the ability to improve the nitrogen retention and protein synthesis that are significant for muscle building. One of the attractive features of T-Bal 75 is that it is an active fat burning agent that helps to burn the excess fat without decreasing your muscle level.

It is undoubtedly the powerful anabolic steroid available, allows the bodybuilders and powerful lifters to perform energetically. Many bodybuilders use anabolic steroids to achieve greater muscle tone. T-Bal 75 is an oral steroid that stands prominent in terms of gains. Some critics may claim that it is not the strongest steroid but still it is five times stronger than testosterone. It is very effective steroids that can gain massive muscles and strength in short time period. Achieving such results without this steroid may be possible but it will take several painful weeks. T-Bal 75 is different from other steroids that offer small bulk and gains; it is formulated to focus on the most proactive of muscle regions. T-Bal is most effective when used in Bulking periods as it helps in muscle mass gain.  It has an androgenic property that makes it useful for both men and women. It works against water retention to avert bloating and improves nitrogen level that is significant block of protein synthesis.

Everyone is aware of the fact that beside the benefits steroids may cause some serious side effects like hair loss, Man boobs etc. T-Bal 75 is safe in this regard and has no toxic effects on kidneys or liver.  It can also be stacked with Winnidrol, Clentrimix and Dianabol to gain desired results. Proper use can be very helpful to avoid side effects, take one tablet two times per day with every meal. The best thing is that you can even use it on non-workout days. On work out days, it is best when taken 30-45 minutes before work out. You will feel the results in two weeks of initial use.

Winstro Pills: The Most Debated Performance Enhancing Drug

 

Performance Enhancing Drugs are leading the sports nowadays, and most athletes consider themselves incomplete without them. Markets are full of anabolic steroids that claim to improve the power and performance of athletes. However, there are few anabolic steroids that are leading the PED’s such as Winstrol pills that can undoubtedly enhance strength and performance especially in bodybuilding. In this article, we will take a view of Winstrol pills and its effectiveness.

Introduction

Winstrol and Winstrol Depot are the trade names under which Winthrop Laboratories sell the synthetic anabolic steroid Stanozolol originally introduced by them in USA in 1962. At nearly the same time, Bayer presented the drug in Europe under the trade name Stromba. Being an anabolic steroid it is claimed to have effectiveness in osteoporosis (both due to age and due to menopause), dwarfism due to lack of pituitary hormone and a plastic anemia. Also claimed was its ability to promote body tissue and to inhibit tissue atrophy in certain malignant and nonmalignant conditions. It was also supported by use for infants, elderly persons, and vulnerable patients undergoing surgery or recovering from surgery or prolonged illness. It seems to have such wide-ranging advantages and so much was claimed about it that it appeared like a magic drug.

Use in Humans

In the same year as, the drug was introduced the FDA was given powers to probe into evidence of effectiveness of drugs before those were allowed in the market. The findings of FDA about Winstrol (Stanozolol) were not very favorable. Efficiency in build of body tissue and prevention thereof was not established. The same was true for benefits claimed in an extensive list of diseases including children’s nutritional disorders, carcinoma of the prostate gland. Benefit to chronically ill or malnourished individuals was also not established clearly. Since no other medicines were available for osteoporosis and dwarfism, FDA allowed, as an interim decision, continued use of Stanozolol only as an adjunct treatment for these disorders. When human growth hormone drugs became, available FDA disallowed the mention of dwarfism on the label on Winstrol. Further evidence submitted by the company did not satisfy FDA, and permission to claim benefit in osteoporosis and aplastic anemia was also withdrawn. Anabolic steroids including Stanozolol had been commonly used to treat hereditary angioedema attacks, but their use was discontinued when several drugs specifically for that disease became available starting 2009. Stanozolol is still an option in the long term to reduce the severity and frequency of attacks in humans, and perhaps, that may be the only legal use of this drug for humans, and again subject to a prescription by a practitioner.

Veterinary Use

Currently, Winstrol is used as an adjunct medicine for veterinary use. Possible uses are against wasting diseases, to promote red blood cell formation, to increase appetite, enhance density of bones, and to help in bulk gain. It is also used as a performance-enhancing drug in race horses. The evidence for these uses is also said to be weak and debatable.

Side Effects of Misuse

Use of Winstrol may be accompanied by unintended weight gain, excessive retention of water, and possible difficulty in getting rid of nitrogen waste products.  It may cause harm to the liver. Toxicity to liver has been especially noted in cats. Its use has shown some correlation with growth of tumors, and as a result, it is not advised in case of dogs with enlarged prostates.

Testosterone Supplements- The Essentials for Bodybuilders

91826925972 - the pain of discipline is far less than the pain

Many athletes that participate in various types of sports use steroids to gain muscle mass and strength to become more competent. Bodybuilders mostly need more power as compared to other athletes and eagerly use testosterone supplements to maximize their muscles and strength in no time. Testosterone is a steroid hormone that nourishes development of male sexual characteristics. It is chiefly produced in the testes and also in adrenal cortex and ovaries. Testosterone level goes down with growing age and thus testosterone supplements are used to boost the T-level in the human body. It is significant to understand correctly about testosterone supplements that how are they best for bodybuilding and athletic success.

When used properly with the combination of exercise regimen and diet, testosterone supplements help to gain healthy muscle and strength in rapid time. Testosterone is entirely responsible for the male characteristics in the body and has androgenic effects. The anabolic or tissue building properties of testosterone supplements help to develop muscle mass. Remember no matter what, testosterone is the base of all steroid cycles. There are innumerable benefits of anabolic steroids for bodybuilders. It helps to increase muscle mass and breakdown fat for energy and also maintain blood glucose and the storage of muscle glycogen. The anti-catabolic feature of testosterone supplements speedup the recovery process and helps to heal the musculoskeletal injuries that occur in hard workouts. Another advantage of these supplements is that they decrease hydrocortisone levels which efficiently lower stress level. It can effectively absorb the protein from the diet and convert it into muscle while the body starts to burn fat for fuel. Testosterone supplements also aid to reduce estrogen and promote the natural production of the testosterone in the body. This allows you to workout in more intense workouts without dealing with sore muscles. This features also improve your strength to lift more weight and gain muscle mass in quick time.

One of the best ability of testosterone supplements is that it boosts the production of Red blood cells that increase the comfortable oxygenation in the blood which creates perfect muscular environment. This also improves the recovery process after tough activity. Testosterone supplements are in high demand for cutting cycles. In addition to the various benefit, some people are more conscious to gain rapid results, so testosterone is stacked with other anabolic results to achieve faster results. Most of the people lack the proper level of testosterone in their body. There are many factors responsible for such conditions, and aging is the main of them. The testes produce a little amount of the hormone with growing age and thus one face problems in developing desired muscles. Keeping in view all the problems, testosterone supplements are designed in a special way to fulfill all the desires of man and also restore the muscle and strength gain abilities. It is getting fantastic reviews from user that they have increases their muscles dramatically with the use of such supplements. Besides these abilities there are other benefits such as preventing heart diseases, increasing memory and improving sex drive. The advantages of testosterone supplements are abundant, and that is why most men use them for health and bodybuilding benefits.

Amplify Your Muscles Strength with Best Cutting Steroids

cutting

The bodybuilders and athletes from around the world want to get best cutting steroids to achieve their end games. In fact, some anabolic steroids are legal that synthesized to mimic the human body hormone testosterone. Mainly anabolic steroids are divided into two categories that are cutting and bulking steroids. Although most of the steroids came under a primary role, but they can trait perfect for opposite purposes also. Cutting steroids are simply the best in anabolic reputation.  These work well in burning extra fat and reveal obscure muscle. These are highly useful when you want to achieve competition readily abs.

People are different in their nature; in the meanwhile some love to be enormously muscular while other wants to be able to run faster. The cutting steroids are useful for everyone. Most of the people are not competitive bodybuilders or professional athletes even they don’t desire to be bulking big; they are everyday ordinary people. But cutting steroids are there to help all of them.

In the anabolic world, almost all anabolic androgenic steroids are used for either purpose. Let’s take the example of testosterone that is used for enhancing both the mass, as well as strength. Mostly steroids serve for multiple purposes such as primarily and secondary as well. As for the bulk of the rest, in most all cases so-called cutting steroids are used.

From the collection of several anabolic, androgenic steroids have their different usage. Either they used for cutting too large degree than bulking. Even many athletes love the same steroids for high purposes in performance. But here we are concerned with best cutting steroids. So, from the available choice these steroids can be classified in three categories. Firstly the primary cutting steroids; second are those which perform well with both types of cycles while thirdly the bulking steroids.

If you are looking for 100% legal cutting steroids then here are three! That is most appealing for the people who want to strengthen and enlarge the muscles in a short time without getting any side effect.

Winstral from Crazy Mass

Winstral is the 100% safe best alternative for steroid Winstrol or Stanozolol better known for its distinctive power to harden and cut muscles. Winstral helped in draining excessive water from the body and expose the muscles. Also boosts the strength by preserving lean muscle in the body. With excellent performance, it is popular for boosting speed and agility.

Clenbuterol from Crazy Mass

It’s a powerful fat burner and Clenn-Max which helped in increasing muscles competition and fiber size. Also burn excessive fat, curbs hunger and appetite, increases oxygen transportation, tightens and tones body. It’s a safe cutting steroid to burn excess fat from your body without side effects.

Cutting Stack

There is the bundle of cutting steroids from crazy mass for those who are most conscious about cutting. Cutting Stack is consisting of four legal steroids that provide you the best results just in eight weeks. Crazy Mass cutting stack includes Wintral that imitate Stanozolol, Paravar that mimic Anavar, Clenn-Max that imitate Clenbuterol and Testosterone Max as a healthy testosterone supplement. Cutting Stack from Crazy Mass is helpful in boosting metabolism, cutting and harden muscles and improving muscles definition.

Augment Your Muscles with Dianabol Pills

fit (1)A number of different organic compounds are available to supplement body muscles, but no one is like Dianabol. Its great strength named it “Great Grandfather of All Anabolic Steroids” In pharmaceutical Dianabol are known as Methandrostenolone and available in various forms including pills and injections. The Dianabol Pills are most famous choice among people nowadays. Commonly Dianabol is referred as Dbol. Bodybuilders and power jocks are fond of this great steroid even they take Dbol as the first choice of them. It’s often labeled as “the breakfast of champions.” Some people believe that it was Dbol pills that helped the iron man Arnold Schwarzenegger to win Mr. Olympia titles.

In fact, Dianabol pay great effect on protein metabolism and the result bodybuilders enhance their muscle mass, strength and stamina. Usually people gained 2 to 4 pounds in a week when they take Dbol with proper nutrition and training of course. If you want to achieve a great look completely with bigger muscles then, you have to use Dianabol. Anabolic steroids are popular for their muscles strength gaining and enhancing feature. These are so powerful that can build up even undeveloped muscles because of their bulking properties

dbol1

Dbol is an oral steroid having great effect on the protein synthesis of body to build up muscles. So, these are best in providing strength to body and hypertrophy of muscles. Additionally for quick results you may choose Dbol as these start working exact after the consumption of dose. And in the result you can achieve your muscles strength in a short span of time. Bodybuilders know well that the extra power is required for high-intensity workout, and Dianabol can provide you easily.

Probably Dianabol was the first anabolic steroid that introduced in sports. In the history, it became popular during 60’s and 70’s. For power jocks, it becomes common dietary. Experts recommended 5mgs to 10mgs per day as normal for athletics while 25mgs to 50mgs is considered an effective dose. Usually its active life is 6 to 8 hours and the period of 6 weeks is required for its detection.

Dianabol also provides you a choice between pills and injection but mostly bodybuilders prefer pills. Even to enhance the effectiveness some bodybuilders combined Dbol with testosterone sometimes. One of the main drawbacks of steroids is that can damage your liver when you don’t follow the instructions properly. Even sometimes people face high-blood pressure. One important thing which I would like to mention here is that the optimal dosage of Dianabol has changed throughout the year. Many of the people took the same dosage after observing the results that popular weightlifters obtained through dosage in the past.

dbol2

Dianabol is not recommended for little children and especially for those women who are breastfeeding or pregnant. Also, this anabolic steroid is not advised to high-blood pressure, prostate, hypertension and breast cancer patients. Usually Dianabol pills come with 5 to 7 years shelf life, and you can maintain them best by putting at a controlled room temperature of 20° to 25°C. Doubtlessly Dianabol is a wonderful steroid for athletes and bodybuilders. A number of Dboll users are available from around the globe that gets dramatic improvements in muscle strength and protein synthesis within very short period.